Memorial Day 2020

File:Tomb of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier-27527.jpg

This memorial, to honor an unknown Revolutionary War soldier (who may or may not have been fighting for the new United States), is located in Washington Square in Philadelphia. It was completed in 1957. Jail prisoners were buried in the cemetery that had been on the grounds, and this was also the site of a mass graveyard for victims of the yellow fever epidemic. I think it is a particularly apt image for this Memorial Day.

 

Guest Post: Nancy B. Kennedy on Frances Willard

I am happy to welcome author Nancy B. Kennedy to the blog today. We share an interest in the women’s suffrage movement, and Nancy recently published a book for young readers called Women Win the Vote! It focuses on nineteen people involved in the passage of the 19th Amendment, so I thought she would be the perfect person to talk to about other women’s rights supporters of Dr. Mary Walker’s time. Here’s what Nancy had to say:

Would you think it frivolous if I talked about the fashion choices of the American suffragists? Well, a hundred and more years ago, clothing wasn’t a simple matter of personal style and taste. It was serious business that proscribed much about a woman’s life.

My friend Theresa Kaminski has written a book about Dr. Mary Walker, a Civil War surgeon who had a lot to say about clothing. In my book about the suffragists, Women Win the Vote! 19 for the 19th Amendment, I also had occasion to address women’s clothing.

In the time period we write about, women’s clothing was heavy and restrictive: petticoats and corsets, multi-layered bodices with long sleeves and high collars, heavy skirts that swept down to the floors. Women couldn’t even get a break at the beach, where they had to wear woolen stockings even to dip a toe in the water.

Fierce fashion from 19th century Puerto Rico | National Museum of ...

(Smithsonian)

Theresa’s Mary Walker (1832-1919) wore men’s clothing because of its comfort and appropriateness for her work as a doctor. In her time, women could be arrested for wearing men’s clothing, yet she persisted!

From the same time period, I write about Frances Willard (1839-1898), a suffragist and president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. Hearing these credentials, you might think she was a battle-axe with strict rules for women’s lives. In fact, she was one of the most relaxed and relatable suffragists I encountered.

Frances Willard at 23

(Willard at 23, FrancesWillardHouse.org)

In her memoir, Frances Willard despairs over her 16th birthday — the day she calls her martyrdom. On that day, she had to abandon her child’s loose dresses and sturdy shoes and adopt the attire of a woman. To the petticoats, corsets and long skirts, she had to add ribboned bonnets and gloves. She had to grow out and pin up her hair — it took eighteen hairpins, she tells us.

Frances bemoans the restrictions that clothing imposed on women. She lists the articles of clothing women had to don just to go for a walk — a list so onerous that women rarely bothered. Some suffragists did try the so-called “bloomer costume,” a short dress worn over loose trousers, but they were so relentlessly ridiculed that they gave it up, fearing the controversy would hurt the suffrage cause.

Kean Collection / Getty Images

(Kean Collection)

Frances not only wanted freedom of movement, but also educational and financial freedom. “Girls should definitely be set at work after their school days end, even as boys are, to learn some bread-winning employment that will give them an independent status,” she wrote. She knew that dress reform would enable women to move comfortably in a world that until then had been organized around men.

Even when talking about the vote, Frances’s thoughts went to clothing. If women had the vote, she opined, they could enter politics as men did, “clad in the garments of power!”

Willard in the 1890s

(Willard in the 1890s, FrancesWillardHouse,org)

In her 50s, Frances learned how to ride a bicycle, an activity that was thought unseemly and unhealthy for women. On a bike, she could shed some of her hated clothing and whiz through the world as never before. She wrote a book about her experience, A Wheel Within a Wheel, that became a bestseller. Clearly, many women wanted freedoms that had long been denied them.

Frances Willard riding her bicycle, Gladys

(Willard on her bicycle, Gladys; FrancesWillardHouse.org)

Now back to Dr. Mary Walker. She persisted in wearing men’s clothing, even clapping top hats on her head. Unfortunately, suffragists weren’t happy about her choices, again fearing that their cause would be hurt by the outliers. Victoria Woodhull came under the same censure — her bohemian dress and unrestrained lifestyle caused a huge rift in the suffrage movement.

But as you follow the suffrage cause into the 1900s, you see hemlines inching upward. Petticoats  and corsets disappear — at least on the younger generation — dresses become loose and flowing, and feet are shod in more comfortable shoes that allowed women to march in suffrage parades and protests. Women, and therefore their causes, became visible to the world.

So you see, clothing was more than a matter of fashion — it was no less a matter than women claiming their place in the public and political life of our country.

Thanks to Nancy for this insight on fashion and suffrage. You can find out more about Nancy and her work on her website.

Dr. Mary Walker Wednesday #9

A big thank you to everyone who has been dropping by every week to read these teasers, and some have been kind enough to leave messages about how much they are looking forward to reading the book. Dr. Mary Walker’s Civil War launches on June 1. If you follow me on Facebook and/or belong to the Nonfiction Fans group there, you will start seeing more book promotion activity. Preorders are still important to raise the book’s visibility. You can do that through Bookshop and help local bookstores in the process!

Now, on to the main event.

Chapter Nine: Women’s Rights During Radical Reconstruction

Although Mary Walker proudly wore her Medal of Honor, she understood the award allowed the government to recognize her achievements without giving her the retroactive commission she desired.

Dr. Mary E. Walker wore her Medal of Honor around her neck for the rest of her life. (National Archives photo)

(National Archives)

This is my favorite photo of Walker. It captures her intensity and dedication; it signals her commitment to learning.

This was also one of my favorite chapters to research and write. Dr. Walker’s fight shifted from helping to save the Union to securing voting rights for women. Though it is easy to cheer her on for that, her views on race were not as laudable. You will be able to read more about that in Chapter Nine.

 

Dr. Mary Walker Wednesday #8

We’re closer to the end of Dr. Walker’s story than the beginning. Chapter Eight is the first one about her postwar life. Still a young woman at the conclusion of the Civil War, she had much to yet accomplish.

Chapter Eight: The Medal of Honor

The war may have ended, but not Dr. Mary Walker’s work.

Trinity Episcopal Parish | Clarksville, Tenn.

In Clarksville, Tennessee, she provided medical care for women. While attending services at the Trinity Church, Dr. Walker got into a dispute with its minister over issues of loyalty, a controversy that spilled into the community. During the months following the warm she considered various job opportunities as she struggled, physically and emotionally, with the transition to peacetime life.

At the end of August 1865, after receiving testimonials about Mary Walker’s accomplishments, President Andrew Johnson asked the secretary of war to find out “if there is any way in which or precedent by which” any recognition could be made of the doctor’s wartime service.

U.S Army Civil War Medal of Honor | Per Wikipedia: "The Meda… | Flickr

Learn how Edwin Stanton and Joseph Holt, the judge advocate general, decided how such recognition could be made–all in Chapter Eight.

Remember, Dr. Mary Walker’s Civil War releases on June 1!

Stay safe and stay well. See you next week.

 

Dr. Mary Walker Wednesday #7

Last week, we saw hints of a very dramatic and traumatic time in Dr. Walker’s life. This week, as the Civil War moves through its final months, we get a glimpse of how she picked up the pieces.

Chapter Seven: Surgeon in Charge

The newly released prisoner returned to Washington, DC, with only a set of well-worn clothes on her back.

Union Prisoners, Andersonville

(A.J. Riddle photo, 1864, New-York Historical Society)

This is a photo of the infamous Andersonville prison, officially known as Camp Sumter, located in southwest Georgia. Mary Walker had the good fortune never to step foot inside. About 45,000 Union soldiers were held prisoner there, and close to 13,000 died, mostly because of malnutrition.

Read more about prisoners of war in the forthcoming Dr. Mary Walker’s Civil War.

Until next week, stay safe and well, as always.